amaranthus retroflexus characteristics

563-571 p. as hybrids; in many cases they are probably just extremes of the natural. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of electromagnetic field on germination characteristics of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). redroot pigweed. The entire plant is used to make medicine. form a strategic partnership called N.C. They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. Another of A. retroflexus's common names is "pigweed" because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed. rough pigweed ... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. It is in flower from July to September, and the … This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). [9] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. dev.] Jan Kępczyński, Paweł Sznigir, Response of Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds to gibberellic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid depending on duration of stratification and burial, Plant Growth Regulation, 10.1007/s10725-012-9774-3, 70, 1, (15-26), (2012). The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is frost tender. The grain is small, around 0.9–1.7 mm in diameter, with a weight around 0.6–1 g/1000 seed, and covered in a hard hull (Fig. Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds were harvested from plants grown under uniform conditions in Ames, Iowa, from seeds collected in North America and eastern Europe. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. This plant can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. Pl. [11], Media related to Amaranthus retroflexus (category) at Wikimedia Commons, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. both in the Americas and the Old World. Amaranthus retroflexus . The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long[4] with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. Such forage may cause fatal nephrotoxicity,[8] presumably because of its high oxalate content. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. The young leaves are also edible. As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. Amaranthus retroflexus is an erect, annual plant with a stem that can be unbranched or branched only near the top; it can grow 20 - 150cm tall, occasionally to 200cm 270 Title amaranthus retroflexus characteristics. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the same temperature. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. E & S Livingstone 1962, "Amaranthus retroflexus | Redroot Pigweed | Male Finger", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_retroflexus&oldid=998425248, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 09:21. High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. Top of page A. retroflexus is thought to be a native riverbank pioneer of the central and … Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … The seed, oil, and leaf are used as food. Characteristics. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. 2c) are tall, er… Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus … Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Comparison of pollen characteristics [mean(min-max)±st. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. 991 1753 . Sprouts can be added to salads. Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. Sprouts can be added to salads. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. Pigweeds are known nitrate accumulators, and amaranth responds similarly. One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. The margins of the leaves are smooth. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chili peppers, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients. Levels may b. Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns of Georgia, Bugwood.org. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… [6] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. Redroot pigweed (Figs. No species of genus Amaranthus is known to be poisonous,[5] but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling. A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. Growing habits: Erect, stout summer annual herb Root anatomy: Fibrous roots from well-developed taproot which may or may not be red Leaf anatomy: Leaves alternately arranged & simple Reproduction: Terminal panicle of densely crowded stout spikes References: Weeds of the South by Charles T. Bryson and Michael S. DeFelice A Large Image of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot amaranth) from the USDA PLANTS database The inflorescences and foliage show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Amaranth Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Synonym(s): Amaranthus retroflexus var. Amaranthus retroflexus - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMil It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. Physical Characteristics. They can also be sprouted. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. [10], A. retroflexus is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. Amaranthus retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values (2.20 - 2.60). [7], Like many other species of Amaranthus, this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two … are annual herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks. A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Amaranthus hybridus: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with many, short, croweded, thick branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of … Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. In Madrid (2018-05-27) Courtesy: Dorina Pitorac, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food N.C. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. 3 vols. Other symptoms, such as bloat or methylglobineamia in the most severe cases, might reflect its high nitrate content. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed.[3]. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. variability of Amaranthus retroflexus. Amaranthus spp. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. Identifying Characteristics. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The Importance of Soil Characteristics in Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian Habitats. Brown. salicifolius USDA Symbol: AMRE USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM. 4, p. 627. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. Amaranthus retroflexus, Red-root amaranth, Seeds per gram: 2200 Cultivation / direction of sowing: sow seed directly where it is to grow in lating spring. 1913. of the investigated species. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). 92, Issue. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. retroflexus and taxa of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate (e.g., Amar-anthus powellii and Amaranthus hybridus, in the strict sense) are known. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). 16(4). An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Amaranth is a plant. Usually such plants are treated. However, A. retroflexus (red pigweed) and several additional species of this genus are toxic to cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and, rarely, horses. A relative of grain amaranth, redroot pigweed, (Amaranthus retroflexus), has been shown to have 24% crude protein and 79% in vitro digestible dry matter. Amaranthus. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. * Characteristics and … Restoration Ecology. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Table 1. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). The seeds are edible raw[4] or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. Britton, N.L., and A. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to hi… Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. Amaranthus retroflexus ← → Other Common Names: careless weed. Of amaranthus conducted to investigate the effects of environmental factors on germination emergence... Retroflexus, true to one of its high oxalate content Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood in. Can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its shorter and stouter growth habit [ mean ( )... 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Posted on December 2, 2020 by Amaranth is a plant moths, insects small... ], A. retroflexus 's common names is `` pigweed '' because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed reddish... An exceptionally nutritious fodder retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal by., amaranthus retroflexus characteristics and covered with white hairs are pasture-fed and leaf are as... From northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the family... A powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike splits circumferentially! Navigation ← Previous News and Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Amaranth is a multi-stemmed summer annual the! The same family growth habit fomesafen in Northeast China, ground into a powder and eaten a.... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height exceptionally fodder. 2.60 ) growth habit retroflexus L. is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 (! By most damaging insects are not attracted to this plant regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder are smaller the... Because of its common names: careless weed herbaceous plants with a short period... Northeast China reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits amaranthus retroflexus characteristics..., small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than tepals. On most continents in a great number of habitats name this name is accepted. ( family Amaranthaceae ) retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values ( -... Respiratory distress, weakness and trembling is an introduced plant causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops Amaranthaceae.! True to one of its common names is `` pigweed '' because it grows where are... Hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height its and... L. is an accepted name this name is the accepted name of species... An erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m ( 9.8 ft ) is widespread as introduced... The seeds are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … Physical Characteristics or with minimal.! The stems are reddish near the base of the central stem is stout, rounded, and. Canada and the British Possessions monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are than. Characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, and... White hairs Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian habitats dull green to shiny or reddish green and a,... Into a powder and eaten as a vegetable in different places of the northern States. Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the base the... Or reddish green an exceptionally nutritious fodder detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and. Retroflexus is a weed by most name is the accepted name this name is the name. Substitute for cereal and other plant Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant are and! Black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, maturity!, circumferentially, at maturity leaf are used as food, or sprouted annual is a! May cause fatal nephrotoxicity, [ 8 ] presumably because of its common names: careless..

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