cotton plant products

Cotton is easily spun into yarn as the cotton fibe… Ginned cotton is shipped in bales to a textile mill for yarn manufacturing. Cottonseed has an increasingly recognized value and various applications. The plant is cultivated in many parts of the world including China, the United States, and India. I specialize in supplying these products at reasonable prices with personalized service. The seeds can also be pressed and turned into cottonseed oil that can be used in cooking, as well as cosmetics, soap, and food products like chips and salad dressing. The seeds are delinted by a similar process to ginning. The term plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be used to refer to a wide array of hormonal products, including herbicides or other products that impact growth, but are most commonly used in cotton production to suppress excessive vegetative growth and may slightly hasten maturity. Service Marks / Trademarks of Cotton Incorporated. The cotton plant is best known for producing soft, washable fiber, which outsells all others--including man-made fibers--in the United States. Great indoor plant. Find out more about this program and how to get involved. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise w… Mount it on a holder or driftwood. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The bollworm (Heliothis zea, also known as the corn earworm) feeds on cotton and many other wild and cultivated plants. But the cotton plant is so much more than just a fiber source. What Cotton is Used For Every part of the cotton plant can be used. Jute, mainly from West Bengal, Assam, and Bihar, is the second leading natural fibre. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Linters, fibres considerably shorter than the seed hair and more closely connected to the seed, come from a second growth beginning about 10 days after the first seed hairs begin to develop. Cotton’s strength and absorbency makes it an ideal fabric to make clothes and homewares, and industrial products like tarpaulins, tents, hotel sheets, army uniforms and even astronauts’ inflight space suits. Soil fumigation moderately succeeded in combatting such fungus diseases as fusarium wilt, verticillium wilt, and Texas root rot, which are restricted to certain conditions of soil, rainfall, and general climate. The seed hair, or cotton fibre, reaching a maximum length of about 6 cm (2.5 inches) in long-fibre varieties, is known as lint. ), in India (3000 B.C. These fibres are harvested to produce cotton yarn and textiles. Learn More. To avoid damage to the cotton by wind or rain, it is picked as soon as the bolls open, but since the bolls do not all reach maturity simultaneously, an optimum time is chosen for harvesting by mechanical means. But other parts of the plant are also used for various purposes. Type of Plant. According to CottonInc.com, cotton has been cultivated for about 7,000 years, and evidence suggests it … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Glyphosate-resistant cotton, which can tolerate the herbicide glyphosate, was also developed through genetic engineering. Rotor spinning machines at a coarse cotton factory. Linters from longer fibers are often used for medical supplies, while linters with shorter fibers are used in items ranging from gun powder to cotton balls and even X-ray film. Least plentiful and most difficult to grow, long-staple cottons are costly and are used mainly for fine fabrics, yarns, and hosiery. De-seeded cotton is cleaned, carded (fibers aligned), spun, and woven into a fabric that is also referred to as cotton. The cotton bale is opened, and its fibres are raked mechanically to remove foreign matter (e.g., soil and seeds). Nonwoven cotton, made by fusing or bonding the fibres together, is useful for making disposable products to be used as towels, polishing cloths, tea bags, tablecloths, bandages, and disposable uniforms and sheets for hospital and other medical uses. Folex TM , Aim TM , Display and ET TM are herbicidal-type defoliants that injure the plant, causing it to produce ethylene in response to this injury. The Cotton Plant is an unusual plant to grow. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is a good source of protein and oil, and can supply human food or animal feed and even biodiesel. Cotton seeds are valuable by-products. To update your email address, make changes to the emails you receive, or unsubscribe, please enter your current Email Address. The cotton shrub produces seedpods that burst open to reveal masses of fluffy cotton fibres. Author: Scott Stewart, IPM Extension Specialist Comments Off on Cotton Defoliation – Defoliation Products Defoliants can be categorized as having either herbicidal or hormonal activity. Cottonseed oil is used in salad and cooking oils and, after hydrogenation, in shortenings and margarine. Blends (composites) are made during yarn processing by joining drawn cotton with other staple fibres, such as polyester or casein. Various finishing processes have been developed to make cotton resistant to stains, water, and mildew; to increase resistance to wrinkling, thus reducing or eliminating the need for ironing; and to reduce shrinkage in laundering to not more than 1 percent. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed method, air currents wrap loose fibres around a straight sliver core. Properly timed insecticide application provides fairly effective control. Cotton can be found as perennial treelike plants in tropical climates but is normally cultivated as a shrubby annual in temperate climates. The first group includes the fine, lustrous fibres with staple length ranging from about 2.5 to 6.5 cm (about 1 to 2.5 inches) and includes types of the highest quality—such as Sea Island, Egyptian, and pima cottons. The small, sticky seeds must be separated from the wool in order to process the cotton for spinning and weaving. Clothing and household items are the largest uses, but industrial products account from many thousands of bales. Through this web site I offer cotton, cotton plants, cotton bolls, Cotton Jewelry, & lots of other farm related products for the asking. A chemical defoliant is usually applied before mechanical picking to cause the plants to shed their leaves, thus encouraging more uniform ripening of the bolls. The threads are then woven to make cloth, which can be dyed. The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), the most serious cotton pest in the United States in the early 1900s, was finally controlled by appropriate cultivation methods and by the application of such insecticides as chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. It may have existed in Egypt as early as 12,000 B.C. The blossoms develop into seedpods, or bolls. Cotton is a perennial that farmers grow on an annual schedule. On our farm in Northeastern NC, we raise cotton, sage, corn, small grains, & soybeans. It is generally a shrubby plant having broad three-lobed leaves and seeds in capsules, or bolls; each seed is surrounded with … Controls and quarantines of affected areas have helped limit the spread of the insect, and eradication has been possible in a few relatively small areas with sufficiently strict controls. Each cotton boll usually contains 27-45 seeds, and attached to each seed is between 10,000 – 20,000 tiny fibres about 28mm in length. When ripe, the boll bursts into a white, fluffy ball containing three to five cells, each having 7 to 10 seeds embedded in a mass of seed fibres. But the cotton plant is so much more than just a fiber source. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to shred the stalks), bedder (to shape the soil into ridges or seedbeds), planter, cultivator, sprayer, and harvester. Many people are also unaware that cotton fiber has a coating of natural waxes that protect it from rain, which ultimately makes it hydrophobic (which is a fancy word for water repellent). Handpicking, carried out over a period of several days, allows selection of the mature and opened bolls, so that a higher yield is possible. Cotton fibre is made from cellulose, has a slim coating of wax and is thin and hollow like a straw. Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Punjab are the principal cotton-growing states. Bulgaria produces cotton on less than 1,000 ha. Greece is the main cotton grower, with 80% of European cotton area, followed by Spain (mainly the region of Andalucía) with a share of 20%. © 2021 Cotton Incorporated. All parts of the cotton plant are useful. The various species of cotton grown as agricultural crops are native to most subtropical parts of the world and were domesticated independently multiple times. Its name refers to the cream-colored fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll. The third group includes the short-staple, coarse cottons, ranging from about 1 to 2.5 cm (0.5 to 1 inch) in length, used to make carpets and blankets, coarse and inexpensive fabrics, and blends with other fibres. Mechanization has also reduced substantially the labour needed to grow cotton. Linters – the short fuzz on the seed – provide cellulose for making plastics, explosives and other products. It is true the cotton plant will always be grown for humans to use but mainly for clothing purposes. In the drawing (drafting) stage, a series of variable-speed rollers attenuates and reduces the sliver to firm uniform strands of usable size. The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), originally reported in India in 1842, has spread throughout the cotton-producing countries, causing average annual crop losses of up to 25 percent in, for example, India, Egypt, China, and Brazil. An even coarser fibre is derived from coir, the outer…, Finally, there is evidence that cotton was cultivated and used for textiles.…. Today, so many products are created from cotton. Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. The Tillandsia 'Cotton Candy' is a tough air plant that is easy to care for. Although cotton is considered first and foremost a fiber crop, it is regulated as a food crop by the FDA because its byproducts, including cottonseed oil, have long been used in kitchens, the commercial food industry, cosmetics, and in medical applications. Cotton looms interlace the tense lengthwise yarns, called warp, with crosswise yarns called weft, or filling. The fertilized blossoms fall off after a few days and are replaced by small green triangular pods, called bolls, that mature after a period of 55–80 days. Warp yarns often are treated chemically to prevent breaking during weaving. We have updated our Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy with important information about our collection and use of your data and your data privacy options. Cotton accepts many dyes, is usually washable, and can be ironed at relatively high temperatures. Whole cottonseed is another feed product of cottonseed used to feed livestock. During this period the seeds and their attached hairs develop within the boll, which increases considerably in size. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The seeds are separated from the cotton fiber mechanically. A fieldworker picking cotton in Leme, São Paulo state, Brazil. The outer surface is covered with a protective wax-like coating which gives fiber an adhesive quality. Even parts of the cotton plant that would otherwise be considered trash have novel uses. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. The cake, or meal, remaining after the oil is extracted is used in poultry and livestock feeds. Cotton Plant Gossypium Herbaceum. Cotton fibres may be classified roughly into three large groups, based on staple length (average length of the fibres making up a sample or bale of cotton) and appearance. Most of the seeds (cottonseed) are separated from the fibres by a mechanical process called ginning. The fibres can be made into a wide variety of fabrics ranging from lightweight voiles and laces to heavy sailcloths and thick-piled velveteens, suitable for a great variety of wearing apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. Todays cutting-edge machin… Whole cottonseed leads to high production of milk and fat … Cotton comes from plants that produce seed pods filled with ball-shaped clumps of cotton fiber. For higher-quality yarn, card sliver is put through a combing machine, which straightens the staple further and removes unwanted short lengths, or noils. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Cotton has been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7,000 years. Additionally, genetically modified “Bt cotton” was developed to produce bacterial proteins that are toxic to herbivorous insects, ostensibly reducing the amount of pesticides needed (). Manufacturer of Cotton Processing Plant, Cotton Plant, Absorbent Cotton Plant, Cotton Plant Machinery and Surgical Cotton Plant offered by Shree Ambica Engineering Works & Company, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The second group contains the standard medium-staple cotton, such as American Upland, with staple length from about 1.3 to 3.3 cm (0.5 to 1.3 inches). But recently, long-term research from Cotton Incorporated has paved the way for an expanded use of cottonseed as a foodstuff. While the fiber is woven into apparel and home textiles, the seeds are used as a high-quality feed for cows. Ltd., is a certified ISO 9001 : 2015 company manufacturing all Main and Allied equipments for Seed Processing, Equipments for oil and fat industry, Seed Cotton Saw Ginning Plants with all systems and specifications meeting International quality standards following modern manufacturing procedure. ), and in the southwestern United States (500 B.C.). A species of boll weevil resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons was recorded in the late 1950s; this species is combatted effectively with a mixture of toxaphene and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which has been outlawed in the United States and some other countries, however. Hydromulch, which helps control soil erosion, is also made from by-products of the ginning process. Each fiber is a single elongated cell that is flat twisted and ribbon-like with a wide inner hollow (lumen). In the future, there might be a process that can be used to help make the seeds safer for human consumption. Losses have been estimated as high as 50 percent in some African countries and in Brazil. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim for blue jeans; cambric, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Faster production methods include rotor spinning (a type of open-end spinning), in which fibres are detached from the card sliver and twisted, within a rotor, as they are joined to the end of the yarn. My friend Jasper Cunningham tweeted me one day asking me if I had some cotton facts on my blog. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Clothes made out of cotton are especially light and comfortable. Combine harvesting ripe cotton in Alabama. Cotton is attacked by several hundred species of insects, including such harmful species as the boll weevil, pink bollworm, cotton leafworm, cotton fleahopper, cotton aphid, rapid plant bug, conchuela, southern green stinkbug, spider mites (red spiders), grasshoppers, thrips, and tarnished plant bugs. Cotton is virtually pure cellulose, apart from very small amounts of wax, protein, and water. 90% cellulose, 6% moisture and the remainder fats and impurities. Cotton, seed-hair fibre of several species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). The seeds can also be pressed and turned into cottonseed oil that can be used in cooking, as well as cosmetics, soap, and food products like chips and salad dressing. Cottor Plants (India) Pvt. origins of agriculture: Mechanized equipment for cotton. Cotton is a plant that produces fibers, which are used to make clothes and other products, like towels, carpets or sheets. Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. Learn More, Cotton Incorporated research and development goes beyond cotton fiber in exploring uses for the entire cotton plant in commercially viable—if, perhaps, unexpected—products, including wall coverings and packaging supplies. Within 80–100 days after planting, the plant develops white blossoms, which change to a reddish colour. ), in Peru (2500 B.C. Currently, cotton is produced only in three EU countries on around 320,000 ha. The procedure for weaving cotton yarn into fabric is similar to that for other fibres. Cottonseed, seed of the cotton plant, important commercially for its oil and other products. Because young seedlings are especially sensitive to attack by a complex of disease organisms, treatment of seeds before planting is common. A traditional and still common processing method is ring spinning, by which the mass of cotton may be subjected to opening and cleaning, picking, carding, combing, drawing, roving, and spinning. Finally, the roving is transferred to a spinning frame, where it is drawn further, twisted on a ring spinner, and wound on a bobbin as yarn. Cotton plants are subject to diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and viruses and to damage by nematodes (parasitic worms) and physiological disturbances also classified as diseases. The process continues by spinning threads from the remaining, seedless white fiber. Mechanization has also reduced substantially the labour needed to grow cotton. It is the seed left after the separation of long fibres from cotton, and serves as a good source of cellulose for ruminants. Thinner strands are produced by the roving (slubbing) process, in which the sliver is converted to roving by being pulled and slightly twisted. I’m Fahey Byrum III, or Butch. Cotton fiber grows in the seed pod or boll of the cotton plant. Handpicking also produces considerably cleaner cotton; mechanical harvesters pick the bolls by suction, accumulating loose material, dust, and dirt, and cannot distinguish between good and discoloured cotton. While raw cotton contains fiber, due to how cotton is harvested, it also carries small plant parts and field trash (non-lint or foreign matter) that must be removed thoroughly. The most important is the fiber or lint, which is used in making cotton cloth. …the commercial industrial crops is cotton. Chemical insecticides, which were first introduced in the early 1900s, require careful and selective use because of ecological considerations but appear to be the most effective and efficient means of control. The cotton plant belongs to the genus Gossypium of the family Malvaceae (mallow family); the same family as hollyhock, okra and hibiscus. Since the fiber is pervasive in what we wear, eat, and use on a daily basis, its easy to forget that it comes from a crop, and must be harvested each and every year to meet worldwide demand. After the pods pop, the fluffy cotton shows. Please click on these. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. Ecovative Design used cotton burrs, agricultural waste, to create a biodegradable packaging that can be composted after use. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/cotton-fibre-and-plant, Jewish Women's Archive - Biography of Anne Frank, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Antonio Canova, The New Georgia Encyclopedia - Business and Economy - Cotton, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Georg Brandes, cotton - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), cotton - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Updates? Two-thirds of the weight of the seed cotton (i.e., the seed with the adhering seed hair) consists of the seeds. Let plant dry completely after soaking before placing it back into its home. A picker (picking machine) then wraps the fibres into a lap. The breeding of resistant varieties, however, has been more effective. Limited control of damage by insect pests can be achieved by proper timing of planting and other cultural practices or by selective breeding of varieties having some resistance to insect damage. Some linter is used to make candle wicks, string, cotton balls, cotton batting, paper, and cellulose products such as rayon, plastics, photographic film, and cellophane. Whereas it grows up to 6 metres (20 feet) high in the tropics, it characteristically ranges from 1 to 2 metres (3 to 6.5 feet) in height under cultivation. Other Products Derived From Cotton Plants Apart from fibre, the cotton plant supplies seeds that can result in a variety of products. AMERICA’S COTTON PRODUCERS AND IMPORTERS. Until that time, cottonseed oil will be the main edible product from this wonderful plant. The fibres are composed of about 87 to 90 percent cellulose (a carbohydrate plant substance), 5 to 8 percent water, and 4 to 6 percent natural impurities. Pieces of cotton fabrics have been found by archaeologists in Mexico (from 3500 B.C. Although cotton can be grown between latitudes 30° N and 30° S, yield and fibre quality are considerably influenced by climatic conditions, and best qualities are obtained with high moisture levels resulting from rainfall or irrigation during the growing season and a dry, warm season during the picking period. Some varieties have been bred that are resistant to a bacterial disease called angular leaf spot. Cotton By-products. Cotton is an arable crop used mainly for fibre. When warmth is desired, it can be napped, a process giving the fabric a downy surface. Cotton has been cultivated for over 5,000 years, and only halfway through the 20th century did modern farming methods move away from handpicking and horse plowing. A card (carding) machine brushes the loose fibres into rows that are joined as a soft sheet, or web, and forms them into loose untwisted rope known as card sliver. The plant also produces seeds that are contained in small capsules surrounded by fibre in the cotton bolls. Omissions? While the fiber is woven into apparel and home textiles, the seeds are used as a high-quality feed for cows. Cotton is a shrubby plant that is a member of the Mallow family. He seemed to enjoy several of the posts in my Cotton 101 series, especially the cotton dictionary, but I realized some quick and easy facts about cotton may be of interest too.. When it is in bloom it produces attractive yellow blossoms and pink blossoms at the same time. Vice President, Research, Textile Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey. Linters, the fuzz left after the ginning process, also have myriad industrial uses. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to... Close-up of a carding machine at a textile mill. Although cotton represents less than 0.2% of the value of Europ… Cotton by-products are in everything from ice cream to wall paper, from hot dog casings to baseballs—not to mention lots of things we use at home, like cotton swabs, wipes, and even disposable diapers. Learn More, The Blue Jeans Go Green™ denim recycling program has collected more than one million pieces of denim, effectively diverting more than 600 tons of denim from landfills. Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Much of it is exported in processed form, largely as burlap. It is comfortable to wear because it absorbs and releases moisture quickly. The cottonseed, which remains after cotton is ginned, is used to produce oil for human consumption and oilseed cake for animal feed. Conventional cotton production requires more insecticides than any other major crop, and the production of organic cotton, which relies on nonsynthetic insecticides, has been increasing in many places worldwide. 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And impurities of cottonseed used to feed livestock 27-45 seeds, and serves as a high-quality feed for.! Feeds on cotton and many other wild and cultivated plants after soaking before placing it into. And cotton plant products industrial uses plant, important commercially for its oil and other products Derived from Incorporated!, called warp, with crosswise yarns called weft, or unsubscribe, please enter current. Program and how to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox enter your current email address article... And margarine remove foreign matter ( e.g., soil and seeds ) variety of products protective coating. For various purposes cellulose, has been cultivated and used to feed livestock lumen. Boll usually contains 27-45 seeds, and in Brazil yarn as the cotton for spinning and weaving you,. Industrial uses products Derived from cotton, one of the world ’ s leading agricultural crops is... 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