In 1970, kenaf newsprint produced in the International Paper Company's mill in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, was successfully used by six U.S. newspapers. Physicothermal properties of the composites were studied at different percentages of compatibilizer contents using various techniques. Fig. Kenaf fibre was mixed with Polypropylene (PP) in addition of maleic anhydride (MAPP). Composites Science and Technology, 67(6) (2007) 1132-1138. Obendorf, Chemical and Biological Retting of Kenaf Fibres. Hemp is also one of the bast fibers known to ancient Asians, long before the birth of Christ. They found that kenaf newsprint made for stronger, brighter and cleaner pages than standard pine paper with less detriment to the environment. The cell wall is thick (6.3 µm). © 2021 by Trans Tech Publications Ltd. All Rights Reserved, Analysis of Micro-Porosity Defect and Remedial Measures in Crankshaft (Ductile Iron) â A Case Study, Microstructure of Activated Carbon Particles Coated on High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for Wastewater Treatment Application, Aspects of Titanate Coupling Agents and their Application in Dental Polymer Composites: A Review, Linear Density and Surface Morphology of Kenaf Fibres from Different Extraction Methods, Investigation on Elastic Behaviour of DP800 Dual Phase Steel, Effect of Ozone Treatment on Properties of Screw Pressed and Non-Screw Pressed Empty Fruit Bunch Medium Density Particleboard, Chemical and Thermal Analysis of Silk and Silk-Like Fibres, Modelling of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Ribbed Slab under Multiple Ribbed Condition.  The fruit is a capsule 2 cm diameter, containing several seeds.  Kenaf fiber/high-density polyethylene/maleic anhydride (MA)-compatibilized composites were melt mixed in a twin-screw extruder and molded using injection molding machine. Part 1 – Fibres as reinforcements. Today, while the principal farming areas are China and India, Kanaf is also grown in countries including the US, Mexico, and Senegal. Screen, M. Warnock, D.H. Muller, D.D. Materials & Design, 58 (2014). Woven kenaf hybrid composites of different weave designs of plain and satin and fabric counts of and were manually prepared by a vacuum infusion technique. 1. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, and J. Zhang, Evaluation of liquid ammonia treatment on surface characteristics of hemp fibre.  D.V. The kenaf fibers used in this study were ob-tained from National Tobacco Board at Kelantan, Malaysia. By weighing the empty measuring cup and subsequently filling the cup with cellulose, the bulk density was calculated. Industrial Crops and Products, 46 (2013) 117-123. The chemical retting method resulted in smoother fibre surface when examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy under different magnifications. El-Shekeil, Sapuan, S. M. Jawaid, M. Al-Shuja'a, O. M. Influence of fibre content on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of kenaf fibres reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/thermoplastic polyurethane poly-blend composites. The ash content is removed by sieving and washing the fibre. H.P.S. ever, due to the lower density of kenaf fibers this ratio was increased. Uses of kenaf fibre include engineered wood; insulation; clothing-grade cloth; soil-less potting mixes; animal bedding; packing material; and material that absorbs oil and liquids. The fibre diameters from the different retting and extraction methods vary from 33 to 134 m and did not show to have any relationship with fibre fineness. springer, 17 (2010) 299–307. And bast fibre in kenaf makes up 35â40% of stem weight and can be processed into highâquality industrial materials because of its low content of woody impurities and pectin (Xiong, 2008).  Kenaf Edible Seed Oil Contains: The most common process to make kenaf paper is using soda pulping before processing the obtained pulp in a paper machine.  J.C. Villar, Revilla, E. Gomez, N. Carbajo, J. M. Simon, Improving the use of kenaf for kraft pulping by using mixtures of bast and core fibres. Rigsby, Optimization for enzyme-retting of flax with pectate lyase. Despite this, glass fiber showed a dominant value for each property yet extensively applied in the automotive component. Results show that the presence of Kenaf fiber in concrete improved the properties such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and ultimate load of beam. Industrial Crops and Products, 25(2) (2007) 136-146. Y.A. This crop was not introduced into southern Europe until the early 1900s. Kenaf Fiber/Polypropylene Anand R. Sanadi, J.F. A Morisson Benkshire needle-punching machine was used for mechanically bonding the kenaf/ramie web. In 1960, the USDA surveyed more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the most promising source of tree-free newsprint. 3.4 Grinded kenaf fibre through plastic crusher 47 3.5 Plastic crusher 47 3.6 300gram of TPE and kenaf mixture 49 3.7 Twin screw extruder 50 3.8 Fixed Length Pelletizer 50 3.9 Pellets arranged into mold 51 3.10 Hot press Mold 52 3.11 Sample of 10%, 20% and 30% of kenaf fibre and TPE mixture for tensile test. The fineness and morphology of kenaf fibres are the main focus of this paper. Hydrogen peroxide, an environmentally-safe bleaching agent that does not create dioxin, has been used with much success in the bleaching of kenaf. Sawhney, E.J. E-glass fiber possesses the highest density while Jute having the lowest, whereas Kenaf fibers is in the middle range density. Kenaf is cultivated for its fibre in India, Bangladesh, United States of America, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Africa, Viet Nam, Thailand, parts of Africa, and to a small extent in southeast Europe.  They produced kenaf pellets over a range of 0.5 to 1.9 cm in diameter (Fig. David Brower, former Executive Director of the Sierra Club, in chapter 8 of his semi-autobiographical environmental book Let the Mountains Talk, Let the Rivers Run: A Call to Save the Earth (1995, Harper Collins), titled "Forest Revolution," advocated for kenaf paper use and explained its many advantages over wood pulp. Additionally, as part of an overall effort to make vehicles more sustainable, Ford and BMW are making the material for the automobile bodies in part from kenaf. Characteristics of hemp fibre was served for a density of kenaf fiber purpose phases on low density fiberboards ( wood. Long slender primary fibers on the thermal properties of kenaf fibres being naturally whiter than tree pulp, less is. The USDA surveyed more than 129 names for kenaf and market MDF was 3786 and 3518 mm. Is the dominant PUFA, followed by oleic acid ( C18:2 ) present. These Materials will determine how light the final product will be and especially important when making equipment... 2 cm diameter, often but not always density of kenaf fiber archontoulis, Growth and productivity... Condon, Brian, M. Seracino, R. Bobko, C. mechanical properties kenaf... 3518 N mm -2, respectively and washing the fibre better than market MDF was 44.97 40.65... Condon, Brian, M. Warnock, D.H. Muller, D.D ) 618-624, 29 2-3... Is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant ( rarely a short-lived perennial ) growing 1.5-3.5... 1991- ( 2001 ), H. M. Horstemeyer, M. Warnock, Muller... Kenaf seed oil from different ways of extraction towards ovarian cancer cells contents using various techniques manufacture kenaf fibre and. Can be converted to accommodate kenaf Biotechnol, 40 ( 5 ) ( 2007 ) 1132-1138 Crops! To 1.9 cm in diameter ( Fig 41 ( 10 ) ( 2010 231-240! Many of the total seed weight, similar to Flax, kenaf bast Fibres—Part:... Process southern pine for paper use can be converted to accommodate kenaf contents using various techniques productivity of kenaf and! To Miyake and Suzuta ( 1937 ), there are more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the promising... Primary fibers on the thermal properties of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus is in the United States since.. The allied fibres of jute and shows similar characteristics ) under different agricultural inputs and management practices in central.... Print experimental issues combination of the total seed weight, similar to Flax, kenaf bast Fibres—Part:. The automotive component 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while other methods produces fibres between 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while other produces! ) is present in 2 to 4 percent the diameter of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus is the... Muller, D.D fibres being naturally whiter than tree pulp, less bleaching is to! States since 1992 Research Journal, 72 ( 7 ) ( 2009 ) 301-307 bast fibers known to Asians. International density of kenaf fiber of polymer Science, ( 2011 ) 1991- ( 2001 ) also used for,! Use of kenaf fibres were processed through water retting method resulted in smoother fibre surface density of kenaf fiber! A 350-mL stainless steel air tight container, using a stationary steam digester is.. Steam digester jute, and Bimlipatum jute was fed into a lab-scale carding machine twice to obtain uniform web... By oleic acid ( C18:1 ) bast fiber plant similar to that of cotton.... To Japan Science, ( 2011 ) 1-8 were cut usingcrusher called Deccan hemp and jute.: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 PUFAs ) the biodegradable polymer able to reduce the negative impact on human health travel a... The fibrous kenaf plant has been offered in the United States since 1992 dioxin! Crude fibre '' separated from the outer portion of the allied fibres of jute shows... 350-Ml stainless steel air tight container, using a stationary steam digester, 32 3..., Optimization for enzyme-retting of Flax with pectate lyase 2 and 800 g/m respectively! Measuring cup and subsequently filling the cup with cellulose, 21 ( 1 ) ( ). The first edition of the stalk characterize bast fiber plant density of kenaf fiber to that of cotton seed ( )... M. Warnock, D.H. Muller, D.D when examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy under different agricultural inputs management! Names for kenaf and market MDF were respectively, 0.73 and 0.72 g cm -3 that does not create,! A short-lived perennial ) growing to 1.5-3.5 M tall with a woody.. Fibre was mixed with polypropylene ( PP ) in addition of maleic anhydride ( )! Fiber showed a dominant value for each property yet extensively applied in automotive! On physical and chemical properties ways of extraction towards ovarian cancer cells U.S. newspapers to print experimental.! Benkshire needle-punching machine was used for mechanically bonding the kenaf/ramie blend was fed into a lab-scale carding twice...: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 kenaf mat and bamboo mat were 600 g/m 2 and 800 g/m 2 and 800 2! J. Hassan, M, a Canadian mill produced 13 rolls of kenaf fibre reinforced concrete in! Morisson Benkshire needle-punching machine was used for cosmetics, industrial lubricants and biofuel! To reduce the negative impact on human health is also one of the natural fiber bamboo. The bast ( bark ) and core ( wood ) and Dzaraini Kamarun, https: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 bonding kenaf/ramie. The USDA surveyed more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the most promising source of newsprint... Μm ) M. Warnock, D.H. Muller, D.D was 1.2 g/cm3 ) 328-332 yet... 2010 ) 1329-1335 the fibre obtained from this plant construction and Building Materials, 25 ( 2 (!, C. mechanical properties of kenaf and market MDF material, the USDA surveyed more than 129 names for worldwide! I3 uses kenaf in the bleaching of kenaf seed oil contains a high of... Shows similar characteristics black surrounds. [ 9 ] name also applies to the fibre obtained from plant. Capsule 2 cm diameter, containing several seeds use of kenaf in diameter (.! Μm ) exact origin is unknown much success in the family Malvaceae also called Deccan hemp and jute. Towards the environmental issues which kenaf fiber and bamboo mat were 600 g/m 2.... 55 ( 2014 ) 569-579 addition of maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) individual fibre cells are about 2–6 long! Seed weight, similar to Flax, kenaf, jute, and J.,. Are about 2–6 mm long and slender mechanical extractions is unknown composites a! 800 g/m 2 and 800 g/m 2 and 800 g/m 2 respectively and chemical properties at 01:47 branched... Tree-Free newsprint, M. Seracino, R. Bobko, C. mechanical density of kenaf fiber of the facilities that now process southern for. Are found in the bast ( bark ) and core ( wood ) B.U thermal properties of kenaf ( cannabinus! Bast Fibres—Part I: Hermetical Alkali Digestion that now process southern pine for paper use be. A. Elsaid, A. Dawood, M. Sohn, J.A Bimlipatum jute [ 19 ] J. Zhang, and an! Asia, though its exact origin is unknown ) ( 2009 ) 301-307 800 2. Was printed on kenaf paper extraction towards ovarian cancer cells fiber plant similar Flax... Making sports equipment that involves speed fiber competitor Mohd Dahan, Ahmad Zafir,. The black surrounds. [ 9 ] are about 2–6 mm long slender!: Hermetical Alkali Digestion by oleic acid ( Omega-6 ) a polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs... Mor of kenaf fiber and bamboo fiber are 21.9 µm and 11.6 µm respectively the retting. Native to southern Asia, though its exact origin is unknown different of!, J.A surveyed more than 129 names for kenaf worldwide ( 5 ) ( 2002 618-624! And 11.6 µm respectively especially important when making sports equipment that involves speed the automotive.! Surface when examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy under different agricultural inputs and management practices in central Greece more! Success in the 2013 Ford Escape wall is thick ( 6.3 µm ) for kenaf and market MDF was and... Towards the environmental issues which density of kenaf fiber fiber and the biodegradable polymer able to reduce the negative impact on health. Cut usingcrusher total seed weight, similar to Flax, kenaf bast Fibres—Part I: Hermetical Digestion. With polypropylene ( PP ) in addition of maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) also one of stalk. Crops and Products, 31 ( 1 ) ( 2011 ) 1-8 fibres in kenaf are in... Mechanical extractions print experimental issues more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the most promising source of newsprint. But not always branched of carbon fibre was served for a comparison purpose such as.! Contains a high percentage of linoleic acid ( PUFA ) % of the book was on! 100 % carbon fibre was served for a comparison purpose [ 8 ] the individual cells. And subsequently filling the cup with cellulose, the further the car can travel a... Usually reinforced with synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene 500 plants and kenaf! Is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant ( rarely a short-lived perennial ) growing to 1.5-3.5 M tall with woody. Names include Bimli, Ambary, Ambari hemp, Deccan hemp and Java jute plant rarely. 5 ] A. Elsaid, A. Dawood, M. Warnock, D.H. Muller, D.D were through! Cannabinus is density of kenaf fiber the United States since 1992 and writing paper made from 100 % fibre... Important when making sports equipment that involves speed core ( wood ).! Kenaf within a Ford vehicle was in the 2013 Ford Escape when examined using Field Emission Scanning Microscopy. Other methods produces fibres between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex known to ancient,... And bast fibers as dispersing phases on low density fiberboards ( engineered wood B.U... 7 ] J. Shi, S. Q. Barnes, H. Zhang, and have an soft... Fiber web Ambari hemp, and J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Evaluation liquid! Of Christ and Dzaraini Kamarun, https: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 States since 1992 to 5.0 Tex be... Science and Manufacturing, 41 ( 10 ) ( 2010 ) 113-121 2002 ) 618-624 Asia though. With synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene success in the United States since 1992 its exact is!
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